The Usambara Mountain are part of the Eastern Arc Mountains a crescent mountain blocks that run parallel to the Tanzania coast.
The Usambara Mountains are consist of two mountain blocs;the smaller East Usambaraâs lie closer to the coast with slightly higher rainfall.This block is less populated and its primary attraction is the Amani Nature Reserve approach from Muheza.The West Usambaras are separated from the east by a valley.
The Usambara are very old.They arose in a period of rifting between Africa and Madagascar 290-180 million years ago. Simply put two blocks slid against each other along a fault or split in the earth ;One block was uplifted to be the Usambaras and another slumped to form the depression along which the Pangani River now flows. This mountain are not inherently fertile when compare with the fertile volcano Kilimanjaro.
Its unclear exactly when the first human lived in the Usambaras however people have probably been here for at least2,000 years.The evidence is from the early iron smelting furnaces excavated by researchers.
The Usambaras have exceptional biodiversity occupying only 400,000 hectares, the mountain house 684 tree species and sub species.
8 Butterfly species are endemic while 43 species are threatened.
There are many forest reserve and one nature reserve in the usambaras that are under the Department of Forestry and Beekeeping.
Attractions:The most attraction of the East Usambara is the Amani Nature Reserve with its botanical Garden ,Nilo Nature reserve,Madala Homing Footprints,Mambo caves,Tea plantations
Activities : Hiking ,Walking ,cycling,Camping.
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